Tag Archive | Tafseer

“O You Who Believe…” #8

The eighth time in which yaa ayyuha alladheena aamanuuO you who believe comes in the Qur’aan is in Surat Al Baqarah, verse 264.

 

O you who believe, do not invalidate your charities with reminders or injury as does one who spends his wealth [only] to be seen by the people and does not believe in Allah and the Last Day. His example is like that of a [large] smooth stone upon which is dust and is hit by a downpour that leaves it bare. They are unable [to keep] anything of what they have earned. And Allah does not guide the disbelieving people.”

[Surat Al Baqarah, verse 264]

____________

To Remind about Given Charity is Forbidden

Allah praises those who spend from their money in His cause, and then refrain from reminding those who received the charity of that fact, whether these hints take the form of words or actions.

Allah’s statement,

﴿وَلاَ أَذًى﴾

(or with injury), indicates that they do not cause harm to those whom they gave the charity to, for this harm will only annul the charity. Allah next promised them the best rewards for this good deed,

﴿لَهُمْ أَجْرُهُمْ عِندَ رَبِّهِمْ﴾

(their reward is with their Lord), indicating that Allah Himself will reward them for these righteous actions. Further,

 

﴿وَلاَ خَوْفٌ عَلَيْهِمْ﴾

(On them shall be no fear) regarding the horrors of the Day of Resurrection,

﴿وَلاَ هُمْ يَحْزَنُونَ﴾

(nor shall they grieve) regarding the offspring that they leave behind and the adornment and delights of this world. They will not feel sorry for this, because they will acquire what is far better for them.

Allah then said,

﴿قَوْلٌ مَّعْرُوفٌ﴾

(Kind words) meaning, compassionate words and a supplication for Muslims,

 

﴿وَمَغْفِرَةٌ﴾

(and forgiving) meaning, forgiving an injustice that took the form of actions or words,

﴿خَيْرٌ مِّن صَدَقَةٍ يَتْبَعُهَآ أَذًى﴾

(are better than Sadaqah (charity) followed by injury.)

﴿وَاللَّهُ غَنِىٌّ﴾

(And Allah is Rich) not needing His creation,

 

﴿حَلِيمٌ﴾

(Most Forbearing) forgives, releases and pardons them.

 

There are several Hadiths that prohibit reminding people of acts of charity. For instance, Muslim recorded that Abu Dharr said that the Messenger of Allah said,

«ثَلَاثَةٌ لَا يُكَلِّمُهُمُ اللهُ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ، وَلَا يَنْظُرُ إِلَيْهِم، وَلَا يُزَكِّيهِمْ، وَلَهُمْ عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌ: الْمَنَّانُ بِمَا أَعْطَى، وَالْمُسْبِلُ إِزَارَهُ، وَالْمُنَفِّقُ سِلْعَتَهُ بِالْحَلِفِ الْكَاذِب»

(Three persons whom Allah shall neither speak to on the Day of Resurrection nor look at nor purify, and they shall receive a painful torment: he who reminds (the people) of what he gives away, he who lengthens his clothes below the ankles and he who swears an oath while lying, to sell his merchandise.)

This is why Allah said,

 

﴿يأَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ لاَ تُبْطِلُواْ صَدَقَـتِكُم بِالْمَنِّ وَالاٌّذَى﴾

(O you who believe! Do not render in vain your Sadaqah (charity) by reminders of your generosity or by injury) stating that the charity will be rendered in vain if it is followed by harm or reminders. In this case, the reward of giving away charity is not sufficient enough to nullify the harm and reminders. Allah then said,

﴿كَالَّذِى يُنفِقُ مَالَهُ رِئَآءَ النَّاسِ﴾

(like him who spends his wealth to be seen of men) meaning, “Do not nullify your acts of charity by following them with reminders and harm, just like the charity of those who give it to show off to people.” The boasting person pretends to give away charity for Allah’s sake, but in reality seeks to gain people’s praise and the reputation of being kind or generous, or other material gains of this life. All the while, he does not think about Allah or gaining His pleasure and generous rewards, and this is why Allah said,

﴿وَلاَ يُؤْمِنُ بِاللَّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الاٌّخِرِ﴾

(and he does not believe in Allah, nor in the Last Day.)

Allah next set the example of whoever gives charity to show off. Ad-Dahhak commented that the example fits one who follows his acts of charity with reminders or harm. Allah said,

﴿فَمَثَلُهُ كَمَثَلِ صَفْوَانٍ﴾

(His likeness is the likeness of Safwan) where Safwan, from is Safwanah, meaning `the smooth rocks,’

 

﴿عَلَيْهِ تُرَابٌ فَأَصَابَهُ وَابِلٌ﴾

(on which is little dust; on it falls a Wabil) meaning, heavy rain,

 

﴿فَتَرَكَهُ صَلْدًا﴾

(which leaves it bare.) This Ayah means that heavy rain left the Safwan completely barren of dust. Such is the case with Allah’s action regarding the work of those who show off, as their deeds are bound to vanish and disappear, even though people think that these deeds are as plentiful as specks of dust. So Allah said,

﴿لاَّ يَقْدِرُونَ عَلَى شَىْءٍ مِّمَّا كَسَبُواْ وَاللَّهُ لاَ يَهْدِي الْقَوْمَ الْكَـفِرِينَ﴾

(They are not able to do anything with what they have earned. And Allah does not guide the disbelieving people.)

Taken from Tafseer Ibn Katheer

Tafseer Notes: Sciences (‘Uloom) of Qur’aan #2 (Part 1)

__________

Tafseer of the Qur’aan

Class 2

 

 

Clearing up some issues from last week:-

  • Wahee can be in the form of Qur’aan and Hadeeth. That’s why hadeeth is considered to be a type of wahee.
  • Different ways of wahee:
    • Without an intermediary – two ways of this occurring.
      • Dreams – no Qur’aan was revealed in this way.
      • Speaking directly to Rasuulillaah (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wasallam) e.g. during Al Israa wal Mi’raaj. No Qur’aan revealed in this way. However, there are some reports which say that the last few verses of Surat Al Baqarah were revealed during this journey. However, many scholars say that these narrations are weak.
    • With an intermediary (through Jibreel) – three ways of this occurring (the last one being an understanding of the first).
      • The ringing of a bell – very severe and harsh for the Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wasallam).
      • Jibreel used to come in the form of a human being and the Prophet would memorise what Jibreel would say. Difference of opinion amongst the scholars – did the Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wasallam) receive revelation in this way? I.e. was is Qur’aan or was it hadeeth?
      • The third type mentioned last week is not considered a type, rather it is considered to be apart of the first category.

     

How the Qur’aan Came Down in One Go.

 

1. Verily! We have sent it (this Qur’aan) down on the night of Al-Qadr (Decree)

Laylat ul-Qadr is usually translated as “The Night of Power” – this translation is very weak. Some say this night is referred to as Laylat ul-Qadr as this is the night in which the future (or the fate) of what will happen in the coming year is sent down to the angels to enact upon and to fulfil the decree of Allaah.

Others say Al Qadr – literally in the Arabic language is something of status. So it is referred to as “The Night of Nobility/The Noble Night”. This was the night in which the Qur’aan was revealed. How was it revealed? We said from Al Lawh Al Mahfuudh to Bayt Al ‘Izza, which is in the lowest heaven (i.e. the sky of the dunya).

Wisdom of this: to inform the inhabitants of the heavens (the angels) of this revelation about to be sent down to the Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wasallam), to honour the book, to honour the Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wasallam) and to honour the Ummah.

To be continued in shaa Allaah…

“O You Who Believe…” #7

The seventh time in which yaa ayyuha alladheena aamanuuO you who believe comes in the Qur’aan is in Surat Al Baqarah, verse 254.

 

 

O you who believe, spend from that which We have provided for you before there comes a Day in which there is no exchange and no friendship and no intercession. And the disbelievers – they are the wrongdoers.”

[Surat Al Baqarah, verse 254]

____________

Allah commands His servants to spend for His sake, in the path of righteousness, from what He has granted them, so that they acquire and keep the reward of this righteous deed with their Lord and King. Let them rush to perform this deed in this life,

﴿مِّن قَبْلِ أَن يَأْتِىَ يَوْمٌ﴾

(before a Day comes) meaning, the Day of Resurrection,

﴿لاَّ بَيْعٌ فِيهِ وَلاَ خُلَّةٌ وَلاَ شَفَـعَةٌ﴾

(when there will be no bargaining, nor friendship, nor intercession.)

 

This Ayah indicates that on that Day, no one will be able to bargain on behalf of himself or ransom himself with any amount, even if it was the earth’s fill of gold; nor will his friendship or relation to anyone benefit him. Similarly, Allah said,

﴿فَإِذَا نُفِخَ فِى الصُّورِ فَلاَ أَنسَـبَ بَيْنَهُمْ يَوْمَئِذٍ وَلاَ يَتَسَآءَلُونَ ﴾

(Then, when the Trumpet is blown, there will be no kinship among them that Day, nor will they ask of one another) ﴿23:101﴾.

﴿وَلاَ شَفَـعَةٌ﴾

(Nor intercession) meaning, they will not benefit by the intercession of anyone.

 

Allah’s statement,

﴿وَالْكَـفِرُونَ هُمُ الظَّـلِمُونَ﴾

(and it is the disbelievers who are the wrongdoers) indicates that no injustice is worse than meeting Allah on that Day while a disbeliever. Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that `Ata’ bin Dinar said, “All thanks are due to Allah Who said,

﴿وَالْكَـفِرُونَ هُمُ الظَّـلِمُونَ﴾

(and it is the disbelievers who are the wrongdoers) but did not say, `And it is the wrongdoers who are the disbelievers.”’

 

 

Taken from Tafseer Ibn Katheer

Tafseer Notes: Sciences (‘Uloom) of Qur’aan #1 (Part 7)

Revelation to the Messengers

 

Allaah to Messengers, through a waasitah [واسطة](intermediary – angel) and not through a waasitah.

 

  1. When there is no intermediary:
    1. Through dreams that would come true, this is a form of inspiration from Allaah. Hadeeth narrated by ‘Aaishah [radiAllaahu ‘anhaa] recorded in Bukhari and Muslim: “The first way the Prophet’s revelation began was through seeing good dreams that would come true and he would never see a dream except that it would come true like the day light would appear.” What is benefit of these dreams? To prepare him for what is to come.

 

A note to remember, none of the Qur’aan was revealed through dreams. Though he received inspirations through dreams, these revelations were not in the Qur’aan. There is some dispute amongst the scholars regarding this, because some scholars say Surat al Kawthar was revealed to Rasuulullaah (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wasallam) in a dream. Hadeeth in Saheeh Muslim narrated by Anas bin Maalik (radiAllaahu ‘anhu) “One day we were with the prophet, he was with us in the mosque and he dozed off. Then he raised his head smiling, and then I asked ‘What made you laugh O RasuulAllaah? He said, ‘A Surah was just revealed to me, then he revealed Surat al Kawthar.”

 

Some say based on this hadeeth, the Surah was revealed in his dream. But we say no, the term used in hadeeth al ighfaa-a [الاغفاء] does not necessarily mean sleep, not necessarily a dream – rather it’s a form of slumber, but we can’t really say it’s a dream. Or it’s a special state he used to go in when he would receive revelation.

 

As we know, many Prophets of Allaah acted upon the dreams that they had, for example Prophet Ibrahim (‘alayhis salaam), the Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wasallam) also acted upon dreams many times, e.g. the treaty of Hudaybiyyah – what led to this treaty? The Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wasallam) seeing in a dream that he had shaved his head and he did ‘umrah. But how could he do this when the mushrikuun were occupying Makkah and he was in Madeenah? Despite this, he and some others went unarmed to Makkah in order to make ‘umrah.

 

**An important note to make**

 

We as humans don’t act upon our dreams; we don’t take any law from it. E.g. if someone in your dream says recite this surah 1 million times and propagate it to people. And tell people to do so and the khilaafah will be established – don’t act upon these dreams; we don’t base our law on these dreams.

 

    1. The Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wasallam) would hear the words of Allaah from behind a veil, this also happened with Musa (‘alayhis salaam) 4:164.

4:164. And Messengers we have mentioned to you before, and Messengers we have not mentioned to you, – and to Musa (Moses) Allaah spoke directly.

 

This was also the case for the Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wasallam) during the night journey. He spoke to Allaah directly but through a veil. However, none of the Qur’aan came in this form.

 

  1. When there isan intermediary. This used to happen in one of two ways:
    1. The most severe way: the revelation used to come in the form of a ringing bell. It was physically hard for Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wasallam) to bare this kind of revelation. The scholars differ about the noise of the ringing of the bell, where did it come from? Some scholars said that it was the wings of the angels striking one another; others say it was the voice of the angel itself. ‘Aaishah (radiAllaahu ‘anhaa) mentioned that this revelation used to be so hard on him that even on a cold day he would break a sweat. What’s the wisdom behind him receiving revelation this way? Going through this difficulty you will appreciate the revelation being taken in and given to you. Even when Rasuulullaah (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wasallam) first received revelation, what did Jibreel do? He squeezed him, to make him realise he was not dreaming. In a dream, you don’t go through physical pain. And to make it clear to him that this was a serious matter that was going to descend upon him.

 

In the Qur’aan in Surat Al Muzzammil, verse 5 the revelation is referred to as being “qawlun thaqeelah” The scholars interpret this word in both ways, heavy as in physically and heavy in terms of the importance.

 

Once Zayd bin Thaabit (radiAllaahu ‘anhu) mentioned, once Rasuulullaah was resting his head on his thigh, and he started to receive revelation – he felt his leg was about to break due to the pressure.

 

    1. The angel Jibreel came to the Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wasallam) in the form of a man, and he will speak to him and he would teach him. Hadeeth Jibreel is a beautiful example of this.
    2. There is a third way which some scholars mention, an inspiration coming to his heart. Hadeeth: “Verily the Holy Spirit, he breathed into my soul. That no person will die until they complete their rizq and their lifespan.” – Many scholars disagreed saying in reality; this is another way of the Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wasallam) expressing it through the first method.

 

 

End of Class 1

Tafseer Notes: Sciences (‘Uloom) of Qur’aan #1 (Part 6)

The Concept of Revelation

 

In Arabic, revelation is called wahee (وحي). Linguistic meaning – when you speak to someone in a manner which no one else can hear. It also has the meaning, to show an ishaarah [إشارة] (indication) by a movement, usually considered to be a very quick movement. Therefore it has both meanings of quiet speech and quick movement. Has the connotations of khafaa [خفاء] (hiddenness) and sur‘ah [سرعة] (speed)

 

There are various different forms of wahee/ ilhaam [إلهام] (inspirations):

 

There is the natural inspiration that every human has, by which Allaah inspires and encourages someone to do something. For example, it is mentioned in the Qur’aan that Allaah inspired the mother of Musa. This does not mean she is a prophet of Allaah; this is not the wahee we mean regarding revelation. Rather this is the type of ilhaam.

 

28:7. And We inspired the mother of Musa (Moses), (saying): “Suckle him [Musa (Moses)], but when you fear for him, then cast him into the river and fear not, nor grieve. Verily! We shall bring him back to you, and shall make him one of (Our) Messengers.”

 

You can find an ilhaam which is found within animals as well, how do animals and creatures know how to live? How do bees know how to produce honey? This is all an inspiration from Allaah.

16:68. And your Lord inspired to the bee, “Take for yourself among the mountains, houses, and among the trees and [in] that which they construct.

The word wahee is also used to refer to indicating, like hand movements, by gesturing.

19:11. So he (Zakariyya) came out to his people from the prayer chamber and signaled to them to exalt [Allaah] in the morning and afternoon.

 

The meaning of awhaa [أوحى] in this instance is to gesture, to give ishaarah (indication).

 

The term wahee has also been used for the waswasa of shaytaan. And the way he beautifies and adorns sin.

 

6:121. Eat not (O believers) of that (meat) on which Allaah’s Name has not been pronounced (at the time of the slaughtering of the animal), for sure it is Fisq (a sin and disobedience of Allaah). and Certainly, the Shayâtin (devils) do inspire their friends (from mankind) to dispute with you, and if you obey them [by making Al­Maytatah (a dead animal) legal by eating it], Then you would indeed be Mushrikoon (polytheists) [because they (devils and their friends) made lawful to you to eat that which Allaah has made unlawful to eat and you obeyed them by considering it lawful to eat, and by doing so you worshipped them, and to worship others besides Allaah is polytheism].

 

 

Likewise Allaah speaks about how he interacts with the angels. He inspires them through revelation as well.

8:12. [Remember] when your Lord inspired to the angels, “I am with you, so strengthen those who have believed. I will cast terror into the hearts of those who disbelieved, so strike [them] upon the necks and strike from them every fingertip.”

 

 

These are the various linguistic uses of the word wahee.

 

As for the way Allaah inspires his Prophets, how do we define this revelation?

The scholars defined the wahee given to the Prophets as being kalaamullaah al-munazzal ‘alaa nabi-in min anbiyaaihi [كلام الله المنزل على نبيين من أنبيائه]. The speech of Allaah which has been sent down to a prophet from His prophets.

 

What is the kayfiyyah [كيفية] or the mannerisms in which Allaah sends down revelation to his Prophets? Allaah inspires and gives revelation to the angels, and then there is another level of revelation which is to the prophets.

 

We need to look at how the angels receive the revelation and how the Prophets receive the revelation.

 

As for the mannerisms, the way in which Allaah reveals to the angels; then it is as follows:

  • Allaah speaks to the angels; the angels hear His voice directly. Example in the Qur’aan:

 

2:30. And (remember) when your Lord said to the angels: “Verily, I am going to place (mankind) generations after generations on earth.” they said: “Will You place therein those who will make mischief therein and shed blood, – while we glorify You with praises and thanks (Exalted be You above All that they associate with You as partners) and sanctify You.” He (Allaah) said: “I know that which You do not know.”

 

  • Likewise the famous hadeeth of An-Nawaas bin Sam’aan which depicts the way in which Allaah speaks to the angels. The Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wasallam) said, “If Allaah wants to inspire the angels to do something, he will speak with the revelation. Then the entire heavens will shake of hearing the words of Allaah. Or like thunder, out of fear from Allaah. And when the inhabitants of the heavens hear that, they will literally drop dead and they will bow down in prostration to Allaah. And the first angel who will raise his head from prostration will be Jibreel and Allaah will speak to him from the revelation of whatever he wants. Then Jibreel will pass by the various different angels, every time he passes by a different level in the heavens, the angels will ask him – they will say ‘what did our Lord say O Jibreel?’ he will say, ‘Indeed he said the truth and he is the high one and the one with perfect pride – al ‘alii al kabeer.’ Then the angels will repeat the revelation of Allaah in the quraan ‘qaaluu al haqq, wa huwa al-alii al kabeer’ (34:23). Then Jibreel will cont to pass on this revelation as far as Allaah commands him to do so.[At-Tabaraani]. This shows how Allaah clearly spoke to Jibreel, clearly spoke to the angels such that they could hear.

 

This is a huge topic which many scholars have written about in detail. This is a matter where there is a lot of deviation. With regards to the speech of Allaah, some say how can you say Allaah speaks? You are likening Him to His creation. It is this attitude that we do not accept. Rather we say Allaah spoke, it is kalaamullaah. Allaah calls the Qur’aan the speech of Allaah. As to the how and the mannerisms in which Allaah speaks, we do not know and do not ask about it and we don’t try and reflect or ponder over it. Rather we accept it the way it is.

 

  • Another way Allaah reveals revelation to the angels is through the sacred tablet – al-lawh al-mahfuudh [اللوح المحفوظ].

85:21. Nay! This is a Glorious Qur’aan,

85:22. (Inscribed) In Al-Lawh Al-Mahfuudh (the preserved Tablet)!

 

  • Allaah sent down the Qur’aan to the bayt ul-‘izza. The tablet is what Allaah commanded everything be written down on, not just revelation but everything that will occur till the end of time. Allaah also wrote down the Qur’aan on a tablet which was sent down the bayt ul-‘izza – this is a house in the lowest heaven. And from there it was sent down to the Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wasallam).

 

As for the bayt al-ma’moor, this is different house, this is on the 7th heaven which is visited by 70,000 angels a day and they worship Allaah in this house. This is what is referred to in 97:1Verily We sent it down on laylat ul qadr.” Where was it sent down from? Scholars say from al lawh al mahfuudh, to bayt al ‘izza in Ramadaan. This will be covered in more detail with the tafseer of Surat al Qadr.

 

The hadeeth of An-Nawwas bin Sam’aan doesn’t mention that when Allaah spoke to Jibreel he spoke to him with Qur’aan. Rather He spoke to him of revelation, which could be of different types. So the scholars differed in regards to the nature of revelation of the Qur’aan from Allaah to Jibreel. The first opinion, which is the strongest opinion, is that Jibreel heard the Qur’aan in particular from Allaah.

 

The second opinion held by those you find affected by speculative theology, say that Jibreel memorised the Qur’aan from the sacred tablet because they try to flee from the idea that Allaah speaks and that Jibreel can hear the voice of Allaah.

 

Another interpretation is that Jibreel was inspired by Allaah with the meanings of the Qur’aan – the interpretation of the people of ‘ilm ul kalaam (speculative theology) therefore the wordings of the Qur’aan are either the wordings of Jibreel or Prophet and not the words of Allaah – this is a very weak opinion.

 

The strongest view without a shadow of a doubt is that he heard it from Allaah. Just because the Qur’aan was recorded in al lawh al mahfuudh doesn’t mean that’s how Jibreel took the Qur’aan from Allaah.

To be continued in shaa Allaah…

 

 

“O You Who Believe…” #6

The sixth time in which yaa ayyuha alladheena aamanuuO you who believe comes in the Qur’aan is in Surat Al Baqarah, verse 208.

 

 

O you who believe, enter into Islaam completely [and perfectly] and do not follow the footsteps of Shaytaan. (Satan) Indeed, he is to you a clear enemy.”

[Surat Al Baqarah, verse 208]

The next verse (verse 209) continues from the above verse, saying:

But if you deviate after clear proofs have come to you, then know that Allaah is Exalted in Might and Wise.”

[Surat Al Baqarah, verse 209]

Entering Islam in its Entirety is Obligated

Allah commands His servants who believe in Him and have faith in His Messenger to implement all of Islam’s legislation and law, to adhere to all of its commandments, as much as they can, and to refrain from all of its prohibitions. `Al-`Awfi said that Ibn `Abbas said, and also Mujahid, Tawus, Ad-Dahhak, `Ikrimah, Qatadah, As-Suddi and Ibn Zayd said that Allah’s statement:

﴿ادْخُلُواْ فِي السِّلْمِ﴾

(Enter Silm) means Islam.

 

Allah’s statement:

﴿كَآفَّةً﴾

(…perfectly) means, in its entirety. This is the Tafsir of Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid, Abu Al-`Aliyah, `Ikrimah, Ar-Rabi` bin Anas, As-Suddi, Muqatil bin Hayyan, Qatadah and Ad-Dahhak. Mujahid said that the Ayah means, `Perform all the good works and the various pious deeds, this is especially addressed to those from among the People of the Scripture who embraced the faith.’

Ibn Abu Hatim reported that Ibn `Abbas said that:

﴿يَـأَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ ادْخُلُواْ فِي السِّلْمِ كَآفَّةً﴾

(O you who believe! Enter Silm perfectly) refers to the believers among the People of the Scripture. This is because they believed in Allah, some of them still followed some parts of the Tawrah and the previous revelations. So Allah said:

﴿ادْخُلُواْ فِي السِّلْمِ كَآفَّةً﴾

(Enter Islam perfectly.) Allah thus commanded them to embrace the legislation of the religion of Muhammad in its entirety and to avoid abandoning any part of it. They should no longer adhere to the Tawrah.

 

Allah then said:

﴿وَلاَ تَتَّبِعُواْ خُطُوَتِ الشَّيْطَـنِ﴾

(…and follow not the footsteps of Shaytan) meaning, perform the acts of worship and avoid what Satan commands you to do. This is because:

﴿إِنَّمَا يَأْمُرُكُم بِالسُّوءِ وَالْفَحْشَآءِ وَأَن تَقُولُواْ عَلَى اللَّهِ مَا لاَ تَعْلَمُونَ ﴾

(He (Shaytan) commands you only what is evil and Fahsha’ (sinful), and that you should say about Allah what you know not.) (2:169) and:

﴿إِنَّمَا يَدْعُو حِزْبَهُ لِيَكُونُواْ مِنْ أَصْحَـبِ السَّعِيرِ﴾

(He only invites his Hizb (followers) that they may become the dwellers of the blazing Fire.) (35:6) Hence, Allah said:

﴿إِنَّهُ لَكُمْ عَدُوٌّ مُّبِينٌ﴾

(Verily, he is to you an open enemy.)

 

Allah said:

﴿فَإِن زَلَلْتُمْ مِّن بَعْدِ مَا جَآءَتْكُمُ الْبَيِّنَـتُ﴾

(Then if you slide back after the clear signs have come to you) meaning, if you deviate from the Truth after clear proofs have been established against you,

﴿فَاعْلَمُواْ أَنَّ اللَّهَ عَزِيزٌ﴾

(…then know that Allah is All-Mighty) in His punishment, and no one can escape His vengeance or defeat Him.

﴿حَكِيمٌ﴾

(All-Wise) in His decisions, actions and rulings. Hence Abu Al-`Aliyah, Qatadah and Ar-Rabi` bin Anas said, “He is Mighty in His vengeance, Wise in His decision.”

Taken from Tafseer Ibn Katheer

Tafseer Notes: Sciences (‘Uloom) of Qur’aan #1 (Part 5)

Those who specialise in the Qur’aan are from the elite of mankind.

Hadeeth in the Musnad of Imaam Ahmad – Verily, there belongs to Allaah a group of select and elite servants. The Companions (radiAllaahu ‘anhum) asked Yaa RasuulAllaah who are they? He said, They are the people of the Qur’aan, they are the people of Allaah and they are His special people.

It is for this reason that the people who learn the Qur’aan and teach it are the best of mankind – Hadeeth in Bukhaari.

He who recites the Qur’aan, he is amongst the elite of Allaah’s creation in paradise.

Hadeeth in Bukhari and MuslimVerily, the one who is sufficient in reciting the Qur’aan then he will be with the noble angels, but he who recites the Qur’aan and stumbles in its recitation – his reward is two times the reward.

Many people misunderstand this hadeeth and think that the one who finds it difficult to recite the Qur’aan will have twice the reward as the one who can (i.e. the proficient reciter)

There is a difference in saying the proficient reciter is with the angels, and saying the one who recites the Qur’aan and stutters has two rewards. It’s not that the proficient reciter gets one reward, he is with the angels. Not just any angles, the noble angels. Rather the one who stutters gets two rewards, one for reading the Qur’aan and another for his difficulty in reading the Qur’aan. Either way the person is rewarded, even those who teach it.

Hadeeth (Narrated by al-Haakim, 1/756)) – He who reads the Qur’aan, studies it and acts in accordance to it, his parents will be made to wear a crown of light on the day of judgement – the light of this crown, the brightness of it is like the brightness of the sun. And both his parents will be made to wear beautiful garments, and thy will say ‘why were we made to wear this?’ it will be said ‘by teaching your children the Qur’aan.’

This is for the parents, if that is the case then what about for the one who learns and studies the Qur’aan? What about the one who is an expert in the Qur’aan?

Hadeeth in the Mustadrak of Imam Al Haakim – (hasan li ghayrihi) accepted. There other wordings which are da’eef but this wording is hasan.

It will be said to the companion of the Qur’aan (i.e. the one who memorized the Qur’aan) read and rise and recite as you used to recite in the dunya. And read for indeed your level in paradise will be in accordance with what you were reading.”

He’ll continue to rise in the stations of paradise according to how much he’s memorized. Abu Daawud.

And this is why the scholars said that the levels of paradise are in accordance to how many ayaat there are in the Qur’aan. Over 6000. Therefore the one who memorises Qur’aan, there will be no one above him in station. This is only for the one who memorises the Qur’aan.

To be continued in shaa Allaah…

Tafseer Notes: Sciences (‘Uloom) of Qur’aan #1 (Part 4)

The Names and Characteristics of the Qur’aan cont..

 

The Qur’aan is something which is recited, and it is Al Kitaab in the sense that it is written down. As for the word mushaf, this is a word which never occurs in the Qur’aan. Neither has it been mentioned in any authentic hadeeth. Reason being because there was no mushaf in the time of the Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wasallam) – it was completed in the written form in the time of ‘Uthmaan (radiAllaahu ‘anhu).

As for the recital of the Qur’aan – we call it Qur’aan. The physical written copy is the mushaf. The recitation is the Qur’aan.

Allaah has given the Qur’aan many attributes; Imaam As-Suyuuti (rahimahullaah) mentions that there are about 55 descriptions of the Qur’aan. Some are names; some are attributes- sometimes it’s difficult to distinguish between the two. E.g. Allaah refers to the Qur’aan as being a hudaa (هدى) – guidance – do we say that this is a name of the Qur’aan or an attribute?

From amongst the attributes that we can mention, Allaah calls the Qur’aan a Noor (نور) – a light.

4:174. O mankind! Verily, there has come to you a convincing proof (Prophet Muhammad) from your Lord, and we sent down to you a manifest light (this Qur’aan).

Most scholars say that this light is referring to the Qur’aan. Allaah has also called the quraan a shifaa (شفاء), a cure and a rahmah (رحمة) – a mercy – all mentioned in the verse below:

10:57. O mankind! There has come to you a good advice from your Lord (i.e. the Qur’aan, ordering all that is good and forbidding all that is evil), and a healing for that (disease of ignorance, doubt, hypocrisy and differences, etc.) in your breasts, – a guidance and a mercy (explaining lawful and unlawful things, etc.) for the believers.

Notice how Allaah calls the Qura’an a shifaa and not an ‘ilaaj (علاج) which means treatment/medicine. Doctors prescribe treatment and medicine; they do not prescribe cures, why? A treatment or medicine may not work. Whereas a cure can only cure, if you approach the Qur’aan correctly, it will be a guaranteed cure for you. It’s a shifaa not only in the spiritual sense, but in the physical sense as well – it cures physical elements whether related to pain or injury or related to majic or sorcery, it is also a cure for the heart from the sicknesses and diseases of this worldly life.

Allaah also calls the Qur’aan mubaarak [مبارك] (blessing), mubeen [مبين] (manifest), bushraa [بشرى] (a glad tiding), ‘azeez [عزيز] (mighty), majeed [مجيد] (majestic), some even say basheer wa nadheer [بشير ونذير] (a giver of glad tidings and a warner – also an attribute of the Prophets of Allaah).

 

 

The Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wasallam) also gave it many descriptions as well. The previous hadeeth mentioned earlier,he also spoke about the virtue of the book of Allaah.

“Have glad tidings for part of this Qur’aan is in the hands of Allaah and the other part of it is in your hands, so hold on to this Qur’aan for you will never be destroyed nor will you ever be lead astray after it.”

[At-Tabaraani]

 

 

Hadeeth in At-Tirmidhithe virtue of the speech of Allaah over all other speech is like the virtue of Allaah over his entire creation.

 

 

To be continued in shaa Allaah…

“O You Who Believe…” #5

The fifth time in which yaa ayyuha alladheena aamanuuO you who believe comes in the Qur’aan is in Surat Al Baqarah, verse 183.

 

O you who believe, decreed upon you is fasting as it was decreed upon those before you that you may become righteous –”

[Surat Al Baqarah, verse 183]

This and the following two ayaat discuss the topic of Ramadaan and fasting in it.

Below is part of the tafseer [Tafseer Ibn Katheer] regarding these verses discussing Ramadaan and fasting in it.

The full tafseer of these three verses can be found in more detail in the following links:

Tafseer Surat Al Baqarah: 183 (The Order to Fast)

Tafseer Surat Al Baqarah: 184 (The Various Stages of Fasting)

The Fidyah (Expiation) for Breaking the Fast is For The Old and Ailing

The Virtue of Ramadaan and the Revelation of the Qur’aan Revealed in it

The Obligation of Fasting Ramadaan

Fasting (rules)

Ease not Hardship

 

_______

The Order to Fast

In an address to the believers of this Ummah, Allah ordered them to fast, that is, to abstain from food, drink and sexual activity with the intention of doing so sincerely for Allah the Exalted alone. This is because fasting purifies the souls and cleanses them from the evil that might mix with them and their ill behavior. Allah mentioned that He has ordained fasting for Muslims just as He ordained it for those before them, they being an example for them in that, so they should vigorously perform this obligation more obediently than the previous nations. Similarly, Allah said:

﴿لِكُلٍّ جَعَلْنَا مِنكُمْ شِرْعَةً وَمِنْهَـجاً وَلَوْ شَآءَ اللَّهُ لَجَعَلَكُمْ أُمَّةً وَحِدَةً وَلَـكِن لِّيَبْلُوَكُمْ فِى مَآ ءَاتَـكُم فَاسْتَبِقُوا الخَيْرَاتِ﴾

(To each among you, We have prescribed a law and a clear way. If Allah had willed, He would have made you one nation, but that (He) may test you in what He has given you; so compete in good deeds.) (5:48)

 

Allah said in this Ayah:

﴿يأَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ كُتِبَ عَلَيْكُمُ الصِّيَامُ كَمَا كُتِبَ عَلَى الَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِكُمْ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَتَّقُونَ ﴾

 

(O you who believe! Fasting is prescribed for you as it was prescribed for those before you, that you may have Taqwa).) since the fast cleanses the body and narrows the paths of Shaytan. In the Sahihayn the following Hadith was recorded:

«يَا مَعْشَرَ الشَّبَابِ مَنِ اسْتَطَاعَ مِنْكُمُ الْبَاءَةَ فَلْيتَـزَوَّجْ وَمَنْ لَمْ يَسْتَطِع فَعَلَيْهِ بِالصَّوْمِ فَإِنَّهُ لَهُ وِجَاء»

.(O young people! Whoever amongst you can afford marriage, let him marry. Whoever cannot afford it, let him fast, for it will be a shield for him.)

Allah then states that the fast occurs during a fixed number of days, so that it does not become hard on the hearts, thereby weakening their resolve and endurance.)

 

_______

The Various Stages of Fasting

Al-Bukhari and Muslim recorded that `A’ishah said, “(The day of) `Ashura’ was a day of fasting. When the obligation to fast Ramadan was revealed, those who wished fasted, and those who wished did not.” Al-Bukhari recorded the same from Ibn `Umar and Ibn Mas`ud.

Allah said:

﴿وَعَلَى الَّذِينَ يُطِيقُونَهُ فِدْيَةٌ طَعَامُ مِسْكِينٍ﴾

(…those who can fast with difficulty, (e.g., an old man), they have (a choice either to fast or) to feed a Miskin (poor person) (for every day).)

 

Mu`adh commented, “In the beginning, those who wished, fasted and those who wished, did not fast and fed a poor person for each day.” Al- Bukhari recorded Salamah bin Al-Akwa` saying that when the Ayah:

﴿وَعَلَى الَّذِينَ يُطِيقُونَهُ فِدْيَةٌ طَعَامُ مِسْكِينٍ﴾

(…those who can fast with difficulty, (e.g., an old man), they have (a choice either to fast or) to feed a Miskin (poor person) (for every day).) was revealed, those who did not wish to fast, used to pay the Fidyah (feeding a poor person for each day they did not fast) until the following Ayah (2:185) was revealed abrogating the previous Ayah. It was also reported from `Ubaydullah from Nafi` that Ibn `Umar said; “It was abrogated.” As-Suddi reported that Murrah narrated that `Abdullah said about this Ayah:

 

﴿وَعَلَى الَّذِينَ يُطِيقُونَهُ فِدْيَةٌ طَعَامُ مِسْكِينٍ﴾

(those who can fast with difficulty, (e.g., an old man), they have (a choice either to fast or) to feed a Miskin (poor person) (for every day).) “It means `those who find it difficult (to fast).’ Formerly, those who wished, fasted and those who wished, did not but fed a poor person instead.” Allah then said:

 

﴿فَمَن تَطَوَّعَ خَيْرًا﴾

(But whoever does good of his own accord) meaning whoever fed an extra poor person,

﴿فَهُوَ خَيْرٌ لَّهُ وَأَن تَصُومُواْ خَيْرٌ لَّكُمْ﴾

(it is better for him. And that you fast is better for you) Later the Ayah:

 

﴿فَمَن شَهِدَ مِنكُمُ الشَّهْرَ فَلْيَصُمْهُ﴾

(So whoever of you sights (the crescent on the first night of) the month (of Ramadan, i.e., is present at his home), he must observe Sawm (fasting) that month) (2:185) was revealed and this abrogated the previous Ayah (2:184).

 

 

Tafseer Notes: Sciences (‘Uloom) of Qur’aan #1 (Part 4)

Class 1 continued…

Technical meaning of the word Qur’aan

– Kalaamullaah, al munazzal ‘alaa Muhammad al-muta’abbadu bi tilaawatihi

[كلام الله المنزل على محمد المتعبد بتلاوته]

The Speech of Allaah, sent down to Muhammad (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wasallam), which people use as a means to worship Allaah through its recital.

Kalaamullaah – idaafah construction, the scholars have said about this that this type of idaafah is an idaafah of siffah (idaafah of characteristic) meaning this kalaam is the direct speech of Allaah; it is not something he created.

E.g. when we say bayt ullaah (which is also an idaafah), do we say that the ka‘bah is the characteristic of Allaah? No.

The Qur’aan we recite today is the direct speech of Allaah, it is not the interpretation of Jibreel, nor do we say it is something that Jibreel was inspired with, we say that Jibreel heard it directly from Allaah.

Hadeeth in Tirmidhiyou cannot draw closer to Allaah with anything greater than that which came from Allaah. i.e. the Qur’aan.

Al munazzal ‘alaa Muhammad – speak later in detail about how this happened (i.e. how revelation was sent to the Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wasallam).

Al muta’abbadu bi tilaawatihi – we add this in order to distinguish it from Hadeeth Qudsi as it can be said that it is also a type of kalaam from Allaah. However, it is not used as a means to worship Allaah.

 

The Names and Characteristics of the Qur’aan

The Qur’aan has many names and qualities and characteristics that Allaah has labelled it within the Qur’aan itself. From the names of the Qur’aan is Al Qur’aan itself.

Allaah also calls it, Kitaab (21:10):

21:10. Indeed, We have sent down for you (O mankind) a Book, (the Qur’aan) in which there is Dhikrukum, (your Reminder or an honour for you i.e. honour for the one who follows the teaching of the Qur’aan and acts on its Orders). Will you not then understand?

 

 

Al Furqaan  (25:1): the criteria, to decide between right and wrong.

25:1. Blessed be He who sent down the criterion (of Right and wrong, i.e. This Qur’aan) to his slave (Muhammad) that he may be a warner to the ‘Aalameen (mankind and jinns).

 

 

Adh dhikr (15:9)

15:9. Verily We, it is we who have sent down the dhikr (i.e. the Qur’aan) and surely, we will guard it (from corruption).

 

 

At Tanzeel – the revelation (26:192):

26:192. And truly, this (the Qur’aan) is a Revelation from the Lord of the ‘Aalameen (mankind, jinns and All that exists)

Al Qur’aan and Al Kitaab are most commonly used to refer to the Qur’aan; there is wisdom behind these two names being the most commonly used. If you go for the first interpretation of what the Qur’aan means, it pertains to reading/reciting. Whereas Kitaab is to do with writing, and this is to show that the Qur’aan has been preserved through the written form and preserved through memory. This is something which is unique about the Qur’aan, that people of the past were not known to memorize their scriptures.

To be continued in shaa Allaah…