Tag Archive | ‘Uloom

Tafseer Notes: Sciences (‘Uloom) of Qur’aan #2 (Part 1)

__________

Tafseer of the Qur’aan

Class 2

 

 

Clearing up some issues from last week:-

  • Wahee can be in the form of Qur’aan and Hadeeth. That’s why hadeeth is considered to be a type of wahee.
  • Different ways of wahee:
    • Without an intermediary – two ways of this occurring.
      • Dreams – no Qur’aan was revealed in this way.
      • Speaking directly to Rasuulillaah (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wasallam) e.g. during Al Israa wal Mi’raaj. No Qur’aan revealed in this way. However, there are some reports which say that the last few verses of Surat Al Baqarah were revealed during this journey. However, many scholars say that these narrations are weak.
    • With an intermediary (through Jibreel) – three ways of this occurring (the last one being an understanding of the first).
      • The ringing of a bell – very severe and harsh for the Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wasallam).
      • Jibreel used to come in the form of a human being and the Prophet would memorise what Jibreel would say. Difference of opinion amongst the scholars – did the Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wasallam) receive revelation in this way? I.e. was is Qur’aan or was it hadeeth?
      • The third type mentioned last week is not considered a type, rather it is considered to be apart of the first category.

     

How the Qur’aan Came Down in One Go.

 

1. Verily! We have sent it (this Qur’aan) down on the night of Al-Qadr (Decree)

Laylat ul-Qadr is usually translated as “The Night of Power” – this translation is very weak. Some say this night is referred to as Laylat ul-Qadr as this is the night in which the future (or the fate) of what will happen in the coming year is sent down to the angels to enact upon and to fulfil the decree of Allaah.

Others say Al Qadr – literally in the Arabic language is something of status. So it is referred to as “The Night of Nobility/The Noble Night”. This was the night in which the Qur’aan was revealed. How was it revealed? We said from Al Lawh Al Mahfuudh to Bayt Al ‘Izza, which is in the lowest heaven (i.e. the sky of the dunya).

Wisdom of this: to inform the inhabitants of the heavens (the angels) of this revelation about to be sent down to the Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wasallam), to honour the book, to honour the Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wasallam) and to honour the Ummah.

To be continued in shaa Allaah…

Tafseer Notes: Sciences (‘Uloom) of Qur’aan #1 (Part 7)

Revelation to the Messengers

 

Allaah to Messengers, through a waasitah [واسطة](intermediary – angel) and not through a waasitah.

 

  1. When there is no intermediary:
    1. Through dreams that would come true, this is a form of inspiration from Allaah. Hadeeth narrated by ‘Aaishah [radiAllaahu ‘anhaa] recorded in Bukhari and Muslim: “The first way the Prophet’s revelation began was through seeing good dreams that would come true and he would never see a dream except that it would come true like the day light would appear.” What is benefit of these dreams? To prepare him for what is to come.

 

A note to remember, none of the Qur’aan was revealed through dreams. Though he received inspirations through dreams, these revelations were not in the Qur’aan. There is some dispute amongst the scholars regarding this, because some scholars say Surat al Kawthar was revealed to Rasuulullaah (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wasallam) in a dream. Hadeeth in Saheeh Muslim narrated by Anas bin Maalik (radiAllaahu ‘anhu) “One day we were with the prophet, he was with us in the mosque and he dozed off. Then he raised his head smiling, and then I asked ‘What made you laugh O RasuulAllaah? He said, ‘A Surah was just revealed to me, then he revealed Surat al Kawthar.”

 

Some say based on this hadeeth, the Surah was revealed in his dream. But we say no, the term used in hadeeth al ighfaa-a [الاغفاء] does not necessarily mean sleep, not necessarily a dream – rather it’s a form of slumber, but we can’t really say it’s a dream. Or it’s a special state he used to go in when he would receive revelation.

 

As we know, many Prophets of Allaah acted upon the dreams that they had, for example Prophet Ibrahim (‘alayhis salaam), the Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wasallam) also acted upon dreams many times, e.g. the treaty of Hudaybiyyah – what led to this treaty? The Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wasallam) seeing in a dream that he had shaved his head and he did ‘umrah. But how could he do this when the mushrikuun were occupying Makkah and he was in Madeenah? Despite this, he and some others went unarmed to Makkah in order to make ‘umrah.

 

**An important note to make**

 

We as humans don’t act upon our dreams; we don’t take any law from it. E.g. if someone in your dream says recite this surah 1 million times and propagate it to people. And tell people to do so and the khilaafah will be established – don’t act upon these dreams; we don’t base our law on these dreams.

 

    1. The Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wasallam) would hear the words of Allaah from behind a veil, this also happened with Musa (‘alayhis salaam) 4:164.

4:164. And Messengers we have mentioned to you before, and Messengers we have not mentioned to you, – and to Musa (Moses) Allaah spoke directly.

 

This was also the case for the Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wasallam) during the night journey. He spoke to Allaah directly but through a veil. However, none of the Qur’aan came in this form.

 

  1. When there isan intermediary. This used to happen in one of two ways:
    1. The most severe way: the revelation used to come in the form of a ringing bell. It was physically hard for Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wasallam) to bare this kind of revelation. The scholars differ about the noise of the ringing of the bell, where did it come from? Some scholars said that it was the wings of the angels striking one another; others say it was the voice of the angel itself. ‘Aaishah (radiAllaahu ‘anhaa) mentioned that this revelation used to be so hard on him that even on a cold day he would break a sweat. What’s the wisdom behind him receiving revelation this way? Going through this difficulty you will appreciate the revelation being taken in and given to you. Even when Rasuulullaah (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wasallam) first received revelation, what did Jibreel do? He squeezed him, to make him realise he was not dreaming. In a dream, you don’t go through physical pain. And to make it clear to him that this was a serious matter that was going to descend upon him.

 

In the Qur’aan in Surat Al Muzzammil, verse 5 the revelation is referred to as being “qawlun thaqeelah” The scholars interpret this word in both ways, heavy as in physically and heavy in terms of the importance.

 

Once Zayd bin Thaabit (radiAllaahu ‘anhu) mentioned, once Rasuulullaah was resting his head on his thigh, and he started to receive revelation – he felt his leg was about to break due to the pressure.

 

    1. The angel Jibreel came to the Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wasallam) in the form of a man, and he will speak to him and he would teach him. Hadeeth Jibreel is a beautiful example of this.
    2. There is a third way which some scholars mention, an inspiration coming to his heart. Hadeeth: “Verily the Holy Spirit, he breathed into my soul. That no person will die until they complete their rizq and their lifespan.” – Many scholars disagreed saying in reality; this is another way of the Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wasallam) expressing it through the first method.

 

 

End of Class 1

Tafseer Notes: Sciences (‘Uloom) of Qur’aan #1 (Part 6)

The Concept of Revelation

 

In Arabic, revelation is called wahee (وحي). Linguistic meaning – when you speak to someone in a manner which no one else can hear. It also has the meaning, to show an ishaarah [إشارة] (indication) by a movement, usually considered to be a very quick movement. Therefore it has both meanings of quiet speech and quick movement. Has the connotations of khafaa [خفاء] (hiddenness) and sur‘ah [سرعة] (speed)

 

There are various different forms of wahee/ ilhaam [إلهام] (inspirations):

 

There is the natural inspiration that every human has, by which Allaah inspires and encourages someone to do something. For example, it is mentioned in the Qur’aan that Allaah inspired the mother of Musa. This does not mean she is a prophet of Allaah; this is not the wahee we mean regarding revelation. Rather this is the type of ilhaam.

 

28:7. And We inspired the mother of Musa (Moses), (saying): “Suckle him [Musa (Moses)], but when you fear for him, then cast him into the river and fear not, nor grieve. Verily! We shall bring him back to you, and shall make him one of (Our) Messengers.”

 

You can find an ilhaam which is found within animals as well, how do animals and creatures know how to live? How do bees know how to produce honey? This is all an inspiration from Allaah.

16:68. And your Lord inspired to the bee, “Take for yourself among the mountains, houses, and among the trees and [in] that which they construct.

The word wahee is also used to refer to indicating, like hand movements, by gesturing.

19:11. So he (Zakariyya) came out to his people from the prayer chamber and signaled to them to exalt [Allaah] in the morning and afternoon.

 

The meaning of awhaa [أوحى] in this instance is to gesture, to give ishaarah (indication).

 

The term wahee has also been used for the waswasa of shaytaan. And the way he beautifies and adorns sin.

 

6:121. Eat not (O believers) of that (meat) on which Allaah’s Name has not been pronounced (at the time of the slaughtering of the animal), for sure it is Fisq (a sin and disobedience of Allaah). and Certainly, the Shayâtin (devils) do inspire their friends (from mankind) to dispute with you, and if you obey them [by making Al­Maytatah (a dead animal) legal by eating it], Then you would indeed be Mushrikoon (polytheists) [because they (devils and their friends) made lawful to you to eat that which Allaah has made unlawful to eat and you obeyed them by considering it lawful to eat, and by doing so you worshipped them, and to worship others besides Allaah is polytheism].

 

 

Likewise Allaah speaks about how he interacts with the angels. He inspires them through revelation as well.

8:12. [Remember] when your Lord inspired to the angels, “I am with you, so strengthen those who have believed. I will cast terror into the hearts of those who disbelieved, so strike [them] upon the necks and strike from them every fingertip.”

 

 

These are the various linguistic uses of the word wahee.

 

As for the way Allaah inspires his Prophets, how do we define this revelation?

The scholars defined the wahee given to the Prophets as being kalaamullaah al-munazzal ‘alaa nabi-in min anbiyaaihi [كلام الله المنزل على نبيين من أنبيائه]. The speech of Allaah which has been sent down to a prophet from His prophets.

 

What is the kayfiyyah [كيفية] or the mannerisms in which Allaah sends down revelation to his Prophets? Allaah inspires and gives revelation to the angels, and then there is another level of revelation which is to the prophets.

 

We need to look at how the angels receive the revelation and how the Prophets receive the revelation.

 

As for the mannerisms, the way in which Allaah reveals to the angels; then it is as follows:

  • Allaah speaks to the angels; the angels hear His voice directly. Example in the Qur’aan:

 

2:30. And (remember) when your Lord said to the angels: “Verily, I am going to place (mankind) generations after generations on earth.” they said: “Will You place therein those who will make mischief therein and shed blood, – while we glorify You with praises and thanks (Exalted be You above All that they associate with You as partners) and sanctify You.” He (Allaah) said: “I know that which You do not know.”

 

  • Likewise the famous hadeeth of An-Nawaas bin Sam’aan which depicts the way in which Allaah speaks to the angels. The Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wasallam) said, “If Allaah wants to inspire the angels to do something, he will speak with the revelation. Then the entire heavens will shake of hearing the words of Allaah. Or like thunder, out of fear from Allaah. And when the inhabitants of the heavens hear that, they will literally drop dead and they will bow down in prostration to Allaah. And the first angel who will raise his head from prostration will be Jibreel and Allaah will speak to him from the revelation of whatever he wants. Then Jibreel will pass by the various different angels, every time he passes by a different level in the heavens, the angels will ask him – they will say ‘what did our Lord say O Jibreel?’ he will say, ‘Indeed he said the truth and he is the high one and the one with perfect pride – al ‘alii al kabeer.’ Then the angels will repeat the revelation of Allaah in the quraan ‘qaaluu al haqq, wa huwa al-alii al kabeer’ (34:23). Then Jibreel will cont to pass on this revelation as far as Allaah commands him to do so.[At-Tabaraani]. This shows how Allaah clearly spoke to Jibreel, clearly spoke to the angels such that they could hear.

 

This is a huge topic which many scholars have written about in detail. This is a matter where there is a lot of deviation. With regards to the speech of Allaah, some say how can you say Allaah speaks? You are likening Him to His creation. It is this attitude that we do not accept. Rather we say Allaah spoke, it is kalaamullaah. Allaah calls the Qur’aan the speech of Allaah. As to the how and the mannerisms in which Allaah speaks, we do not know and do not ask about it and we don’t try and reflect or ponder over it. Rather we accept it the way it is.

 

  • Another way Allaah reveals revelation to the angels is through the sacred tablet – al-lawh al-mahfuudh [اللوح المحفوظ].

85:21. Nay! This is a Glorious Qur’aan,

85:22. (Inscribed) In Al-Lawh Al-Mahfuudh (the preserved Tablet)!

 

  • Allaah sent down the Qur’aan to the bayt ul-‘izza. The tablet is what Allaah commanded everything be written down on, not just revelation but everything that will occur till the end of time. Allaah also wrote down the Qur’aan on a tablet which was sent down the bayt ul-‘izza – this is a house in the lowest heaven. And from there it was sent down to the Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wasallam).

 

As for the bayt al-ma’moor, this is different house, this is on the 7th heaven which is visited by 70,000 angels a day and they worship Allaah in this house. This is what is referred to in 97:1Verily We sent it down on laylat ul qadr.” Where was it sent down from? Scholars say from al lawh al mahfuudh, to bayt al ‘izza in Ramadaan. This will be covered in more detail with the tafseer of Surat al Qadr.

 

The hadeeth of An-Nawwas bin Sam’aan doesn’t mention that when Allaah spoke to Jibreel he spoke to him with Qur’aan. Rather He spoke to him of revelation, which could be of different types. So the scholars differed in regards to the nature of revelation of the Qur’aan from Allaah to Jibreel. The first opinion, which is the strongest opinion, is that Jibreel heard the Qur’aan in particular from Allaah.

 

The second opinion held by those you find affected by speculative theology, say that Jibreel memorised the Qur’aan from the sacred tablet because they try to flee from the idea that Allaah speaks and that Jibreel can hear the voice of Allaah.

 

Another interpretation is that Jibreel was inspired by Allaah with the meanings of the Qur’aan – the interpretation of the people of ‘ilm ul kalaam (speculative theology) therefore the wordings of the Qur’aan are either the wordings of Jibreel or Prophet and not the words of Allaah – this is a very weak opinion.

 

The strongest view without a shadow of a doubt is that he heard it from Allaah. Just because the Qur’aan was recorded in al lawh al mahfuudh doesn’t mean that’s how Jibreel took the Qur’aan from Allaah.

To be continued in shaa Allaah…

 

 

Tafseer Notes: Sciences (‘Uloom) of Qur’aan #1 (Part 5)

Those who specialise in the Qur’aan are from the elite of mankind.

Hadeeth in the Musnad of Imaam Ahmad – Verily, there belongs to Allaah a group of select and elite servants. The Companions (radiAllaahu ‘anhum) asked Yaa RasuulAllaah who are they? He said, They are the people of the Qur’aan, they are the people of Allaah and they are His special people.

It is for this reason that the people who learn the Qur’aan and teach it are the best of mankind – Hadeeth in Bukhaari.

He who recites the Qur’aan, he is amongst the elite of Allaah’s creation in paradise.

Hadeeth in Bukhari and MuslimVerily, the one who is sufficient in reciting the Qur’aan then he will be with the noble angels, but he who recites the Qur’aan and stumbles in its recitation – his reward is two times the reward.

Many people misunderstand this hadeeth and think that the one who finds it difficult to recite the Qur’aan will have twice the reward as the one who can (i.e. the proficient reciter)

There is a difference in saying the proficient reciter is with the angels, and saying the one who recites the Qur’aan and stutters has two rewards. It’s not that the proficient reciter gets one reward, he is with the angels. Not just any angles, the noble angels. Rather the one who stutters gets two rewards, one for reading the Qur’aan and another for his difficulty in reading the Qur’aan. Either way the person is rewarded, even those who teach it.

Hadeeth (Narrated by al-Haakim, 1/756)) – He who reads the Qur’aan, studies it and acts in accordance to it, his parents will be made to wear a crown of light on the day of judgement – the light of this crown, the brightness of it is like the brightness of the sun. And both his parents will be made to wear beautiful garments, and thy will say ‘why were we made to wear this?’ it will be said ‘by teaching your children the Qur’aan.’

This is for the parents, if that is the case then what about for the one who learns and studies the Qur’aan? What about the one who is an expert in the Qur’aan?

Hadeeth in the Mustadrak of Imam Al Haakim – (hasan li ghayrihi) accepted. There other wordings which are da’eef but this wording is hasan.

It will be said to the companion of the Qur’aan (i.e. the one who memorized the Qur’aan) read and rise and recite as you used to recite in the dunya. And read for indeed your level in paradise will be in accordance with what you were reading.”

He’ll continue to rise in the stations of paradise according to how much he’s memorized. Abu Daawud.

And this is why the scholars said that the levels of paradise are in accordance to how many ayaat there are in the Qur’aan. Over 6000. Therefore the one who memorises Qur’aan, there will be no one above him in station. This is only for the one who memorises the Qur’aan.

To be continued in shaa Allaah…

Tafseer Notes: Sciences (‘Uloom) of Qur’aan #1 (Part 4)

The Names and Characteristics of the Qur’aan cont..

 

The Qur’aan is something which is recited, and it is Al Kitaab in the sense that it is written down. As for the word mushaf, this is a word which never occurs in the Qur’aan. Neither has it been mentioned in any authentic hadeeth. Reason being because there was no mushaf in the time of the Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wasallam) – it was completed in the written form in the time of ‘Uthmaan (radiAllaahu ‘anhu).

As for the recital of the Qur’aan – we call it Qur’aan. The physical written copy is the mushaf. The recitation is the Qur’aan.

Allaah has given the Qur’aan many attributes; Imaam As-Suyuuti (rahimahullaah) mentions that there are about 55 descriptions of the Qur’aan. Some are names; some are attributes- sometimes it’s difficult to distinguish between the two. E.g. Allaah refers to the Qur’aan as being a hudaa (هدى) – guidance – do we say that this is a name of the Qur’aan or an attribute?

From amongst the attributes that we can mention, Allaah calls the Qur’aan a Noor (نور) – a light.

4:174. O mankind! Verily, there has come to you a convincing proof (Prophet Muhammad) from your Lord, and we sent down to you a manifest light (this Qur’aan).

Most scholars say that this light is referring to the Qur’aan. Allaah has also called the quraan a shifaa (شفاء), a cure and a rahmah (رحمة) – a mercy – all mentioned in the verse below:

10:57. O mankind! There has come to you a good advice from your Lord (i.e. the Qur’aan, ordering all that is good and forbidding all that is evil), and a healing for that (disease of ignorance, doubt, hypocrisy and differences, etc.) in your breasts, – a guidance and a mercy (explaining lawful and unlawful things, etc.) for the believers.

Notice how Allaah calls the Qura’an a shifaa and not an ‘ilaaj (علاج) which means treatment/medicine. Doctors prescribe treatment and medicine; they do not prescribe cures, why? A treatment or medicine may not work. Whereas a cure can only cure, if you approach the Qur’aan correctly, it will be a guaranteed cure for you. It’s a shifaa not only in the spiritual sense, but in the physical sense as well – it cures physical elements whether related to pain or injury or related to majic or sorcery, it is also a cure for the heart from the sicknesses and diseases of this worldly life.

Allaah also calls the Qur’aan mubaarak [مبارك] (blessing), mubeen [مبين] (manifest), bushraa [بشرى] (a glad tiding), ‘azeez [عزيز] (mighty), majeed [مجيد] (majestic), some even say basheer wa nadheer [بشير ونذير] (a giver of glad tidings and a warner – also an attribute of the Prophets of Allaah).

 

 

The Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wasallam) also gave it many descriptions as well. The previous hadeeth mentioned earlier,he also spoke about the virtue of the book of Allaah.

“Have glad tidings for part of this Qur’aan is in the hands of Allaah and the other part of it is in your hands, so hold on to this Qur’aan for you will never be destroyed nor will you ever be lead astray after it.”

[At-Tabaraani]

 

 

Hadeeth in At-Tirmidhithe virtue of the speech of Allaah over all other speech is like the virtue of Allaah over his entire creation.

 

 

To be continued in shaa Allaah…

Tafseer Notes: Sciences (‘Uloom) of Qur’aan #1 (Part 4)

Class 1 continued…

Technical meaning of the word Qur’aan

– Kalaamullaah, al munazzal ‘alaa Muhammad al-muta’abbadu bi tilaawatihi

[كلام الله المنزل على محمد المتعبد بتلاوته]

The Speech of Allaah, sent down to Muhammad (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wasallam), which people use as a means to worship Allaah through its recital.

Kalaamullaah – idaafah construction, the scholars have said about this that this type of idaafah is an idaafah of siffah (idaafah of characteristic) meaning this kalaam is the direct speech of Allaah; it is not something he created.

E.g. when we say bayt ullaah (which is also an idaafah), do we say that the ka‘bah is the characteristic of Allaah? No.

The Qur’aan we recite today is the direct speech of Allaah, it is not the interpretation of Jibreel, nor do we say it is something that Jibreel was inspired with, we say that Jibreel heard it directly from Allaah.

Hadeeth in Tirmidhiyou cannot draw closer to Allaah with anything greater than that which came from Allaah. i.e. the Qur’aan.

Al munazzal ‘alaa Muhammad – speak later in detail about how this happened (i.e. how revelation was sent to the Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wasallam).

Al muta’abbadu bi tilaawatihi – we add this in order to distinguish it from Hadeeth Qudsi as it can be said that it is also a type of kalaam from Allaah. However, it is not used as a means to worship Allaah.

 

The Names and Characteristics of the Qur’aan

The Qur’aan has many names and qualities and characteristics that Allaah has labelled it within the Qur’aan itself. From the names of the Qur’aan is Al Qur’aan itself.

Allaah also calls it, Kitaab (21:10):

21:10. Indeed, We have sent down for you (O mankind) a Book, (the Qur’aan) in which there is Dhikrukum, (your Reminder or an honour for you i.e. honour for the one who follows the teaching of the Qur’aan and acts on its Orders). Will you not then understand?

 

 

Al Furqaan  (25:1): the criteria, to decide between right and wrong.

25:1. Blessed be He who sent down the criterion (of Right and wrong, i.e. This Qur’aan) to his slave (Muhammad) that he may be a warner to the ‘Aalameen (mankind and jinns).

 

 

Adh dhikr (15:9)

15:9. Verily We, it is we who have sent down the dhikr (i.e. the Qur’aan) and surely, we will guard it (from corruption).

 

 

At Tanzeel – the revelation (26:192):

26:192. And truly, this (the Qur’aan) is a Revelation from the Lord of the ‘Aalameen (mankind, jinns and All that exists)

Al Qur’aan and Al Kitaab are most commonly used to refer to the Qur’aan; there is wisdom behind these two names being the most commonly used. If you go for the first interpretation of what the Qur’aan means, it pertains to reading/reciting. Whereas Kitaab is to do with writing, and this is to show that the Qur’aan has been preserved through the written form and preserved through memory. This is something which is unique about the Qur’aan, that people of the past were not known to memorize their scriptures.

To be continued in shaa Allaah…

Tafseer Notes: Sciences (‘Uloom) of Qur’aan #1 (Part 3)

Class 1 continued…

What does the word Qur’aan mean?

 

The scholars differ regarding the etymology (roots) of this word, the most common understanding is that the word Qur’aan is derived from the root qa ra a (ق ر ء).

Very literally, this word means to bring together and to add one thing to another hence when a person adds many letters together – he forms speech. Hence is why we say that ق ر ء means to recite or to read. Therefore the Qur’aan is something which is recited.

 

Other scholars say the Qur’aan is called the Qur’aan not because it is read but because it brings together all of the teachings of the previous scriptures.

16:89. and (remember) the Day when we shall raise up from every nation a witness against them from amongst themselves. And we shall bring you (O Muhammad) as a witness against these. And We have sent down to you the Book (the Qur’aan) as an exposition of everything, a guidance, a Mercy, and glad tidings for those who have submitted themselves (to Allaah as Muslims).

 

The Qur’aan provides a solution to everything, even that which is not in the Qur’aan – there is an ayah in the Qur’aan that states – ask the people of knowledge if you do not know.

 

Rasuulullaah (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wasallam) had three major roles in regards to the Qur’aan:

  1. He was someone who emphasised and reinforced the meanings of the Qur’aan – mu-akkid (مؤكّد).
  2. He was someone who clarified the meaning of the Qur’aan – mubayyin (مبيّن)
  3. He was a legislator himself as he gave laws which coupled the laws in the Qur’aan – musharri’ (مشرّع)

 

Put together the Qur’aan and the Sunnah then you have the complete code of life, and this is the wisdom behind the shahaadah, it is not enough to say Laa ilaaha illAllaah, you also need to say – wa ash-hadu anna Muhammadan ‘abduhu wa rasuuluhu.

 

The scholars did mention that Allaah send down previously 300+ revelations – not absolutely certain. Allaah gathered the knowledge of all of these scriptures into 4 major books Tawraah, Injeel, Zabuur, Qur’aan. Allaah summarized the teaching of these 4 scriptures in the Qur’aan – it teaches us the major principles of the previous scriptures, maybe not in terms of rulings as we know that each prophet was given his own respective ruling for his nation, but in terms of major themes and messages, aspects of creed, Tawheed, hisaab, hereafter, Qadr.

 

Scholars say in the Qur’aan is one surah that summarizes all the teachings of the Qur’aan, this is Surat al Faatihah.

 

Other scholars say the Qur’aan is not derived from the root qa ra a – ق ر ء. rather they say that it is derived from the root qa ra na – ق ر ن. This means to add one thing to another or to be similar to something else or to adhere to something else. Since the verses of the Qur’aan all resemble one another, because of their miraculous nature and their essence, this was the opinion of some scholars, though many scholars say this is the weaker opinion.

 

Some scholars were even of the view that this word was not a derived word, but saying this implies that it does not actually have a meaning. This was the view of Imaam Ash-Shaafi‘ee (rahimahullaah). Like the Injeel and the Tawraah. So we say it’s an ismun ‘alam – a proper noun. The benefit of proper nouns is that when you give a name to something which doesn’t have a meaning behind it, it becomes a title for it and not just a description, e.g. looking at the names of the children of the Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wasallam) many of them did not have a meaning. Zaynab, Umm Kulthoom.

To be continued in shaa Allaah…

Tafseer Notes: Sciences (‘Uloom) of Qur’aan #1 (Part 2)

Class 1 continued…

Rasuulullaah (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wasallam) used a beautiful example to compare himself with the other Prophets. He said: “The example of me and the example of those before me, the similitude of that is like a man who builds a house – and I beautified it and adorned it, except for one place – there was a brick that was empty, so the people began to look around this house and were amazed by its beauty, they say ‘If only there was one more brick, which would fill the gap in this house – it would be perfect.’ Rasuulullaah (salAllaahu ‘alayhi wasallam) said, ‘I am that brick and I am the seal of all prophets’.”

[Al-Bukhaari & Muslim]

The belief in the Qur’aan yields many great benefits, one of the most important being the belief that Allaah has sent a revelation to mankind – it indicates the care and concern that Allaah has shown His nation. Fitrah, ayaat al kawniyyah, ayaat of the Qur’aan, these all show the love and concern Allaah has for His nation. When a person realises this point, he appreciates the Qur’aan.

Secondly, we learn how when Allaah reveals scriptures to His Prophets it suited their time and place; He revealed them according to the needs of the people. This shows that this is a sharee’ah that will go in accordance with every time and age.

Hadeeth: “Have glad tidings for part of this Qur’aan is in the hands of Allaah and the other part of it is in your hands, so hold on to this Qur’aan for you will never be destroyed nor will you ever be lead astray after it.”

[At-Tabaraani]

It is for this reason that the Qur’aan which withstands the pressures of time and change, therefore Allaah has promised to and has preserved the Qur’aan from any change or distortion, omission, substitution or addition.

15:9. Verily We, it is we who have sent down the dhikr (i.e. the Qur’aan) and surely, we will guard it (from corruption).

This is apart of the miraculous nature of the Qur’aan.

To be continued in shaa Allaah…

Tafseer Notes: Sciences (‘Uloom) of Qur’aan #1

I absolutely adore tafseer, of anything that I have learnt about – tafseer holds a special place in my heart as it is an indepth explanation of the Qur’aan – the Book of Allaah subhaanahu wa ta’aalaa.

After ages of searching for a series (in English) which deals with the Tafseer of the entire Qur’aan, I was told of classes that were going to start in NW London that would be dealing with the tafseer of the Qur’aan! Unfortunately the timing and location wasn’t good for me, but Allaah made a way out and Alhamdulillaah the series was online!

Those interested in listening to the series here is the link to website (updated weekly):

Tafseer Al Qur’aan

Alhamdulillaah this series has been absolutely amazing so far – may Allaah reward the Ustaadh and all those involved in making this series available to us – aameen!

Without further ado, here is the first post of many (in shaa Allaah) of the compiled notes of this tafseer series, starting with the sciences of the Qur’aan.

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Tafseer of the Qur’aan

Class 1

It’s from the grace of Allaah subhaanahu wa ta’aalaa that he has bestowed upon man, Al-Fitrah (الفِطْرَة) – the natural disposition by which a person can come to recognise the Oneness of Allaah, also by which he recognises good from bad.

The fitrah that Allaah has created man upon recognises the oneness of Allaah but also to a certain degree this fitrah that we all have helps one recognise the difference between right and wrong to a certain extent. This is the belief of Ahlus sunnah wal jamaa’ah.

In addition to this, Allaah has blessed human beings by guiding him even further i.e. through revelation – the Qur’aan. On top of the Qur’aan, Allaah has given various ayaat – the universal ayaat – al-ayaat al-kawniyyah (الآيَات الكَوْنِيَّة). These ayaat point to the oneness of Allaah, His greatness and His omnipotence.

Allaah has given the human race many different ways to come to the conclusion about the belief in Allaah and the difference to know between right and wrong. It is for this reason that we find that Allaah time and time again sent various different Prophets with various different revelations – however, all of the Prophets were sent with the same message. The various revelations were sent to see to the needs of the human race in order to help them determine what path to lead.

Throughout time, mankind has changed and developed, different circumstances, civilisations, cultures, needs and requirements etc. So it’s from the hikmah (wisdom) of Allaah that he sent a particular Prophet to his respective nation:

…li kulli ja’alnaa minkum shir’atan wa minhaajan…

for every (nation), We made for them a law and a way

(Surat Al Maaidah, verse 48)

Each nation was given a particular law and way and method. However, these revelations suited their time and their place. But we know that the Qur’aan, the revelation that Prophet Muhammad sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wasallam received was to be the final revelation for mankind. This would be a revelation that would overcome the various different tests of the changing of time.

With the change of time, there is a change in the way we perceive things, even the way we behave. But one of the unique features of the Qur’aan is that it is suitable for all nations and all times up until the day of judgement. There will be no change in the text itself as it is preserved, nor will there be any change in the interpretation.

To be continued (in shaa Allaah)…